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Windows NT is a proprietary graphical operating system produced by Microsoft , the first version of which was released on July 27, It is a processor-independent, multiprocessing and multi-user operating system. It was a commercially focused operating system intended to complement consumer versions of Windows that were based on MS-DOS including Windows 1.
Gradually, the Windows NT family was expanded into Microsoft’s general-purpose operating system product line for all personal computers , deprecating the Windows 9x family. Starting with Windows ,  “NT” was removed from the product name and is only included in the product version string along with several low-level places within the system. NT was the first purely bit version of Windows, whereas its consumer-oriented counterparts, Windows 3.
It is a multi-architecture operating system. One of the main purposes of NT is hardware and software portability.
NT has supported per-object file, function, and role access control lists allowing a rich set of security permissions to be applied to systems and services. Windows NT 3. Its companion product, Windows 3.
The full preemptive multitasking kernel could interrupt running tasks to schedule other tasks, without relying on user programs to voluntarily give up control of the CPU, as in Windows 3. Notably, in Windows NT 3. In Windows NT 4, the video, server, and printer spooler subsystems were moved into kernel mode.
Windows NT also allows for other installable file systems; since versions 3. Windows NT introduced its own driver model, the Windows NT driver model, and is incompatible with older driver frameworks. Windows 3. This decision caused tension between Microsoft and IBM and the collaboration ultimately fell apart. Like VMS,  Windows NT’s kernel mode code distinguishes between the “kernel”, whose primary purpose is to implement processor- and architecture-dependent functions, and the “executive”.
This was designed as a modified microkernel , as the Windows NT kernel was influenced by the Mach microkernel developed by Richard Rashid at Carnegie Mellon University,  but does not meet all of the criteria of a pure microkernel. Both the kernel and the executive are linked together into the single loaded module ntoskrnl.
Routines from each are directly accessible, as for example from kernel-mode device drivers. Windows NT was one of the earliest operating systems to use Unicode internally. Windows NT 4. The first release was given version number 3. Also the Novell IPX protocol was apparently licensed only to 3. The NT version number is not now generally used for marketing purposes, but is still used internally, and said to reflect the degree of changes to the core of the operating system.
Starting with Windows 8. If an application is not manifested for Windows 8. Assembly language is avoided where possible because it would impede portability. In order to prevent Intel x86 -specific code from slipping into the operating system by developers used to developing on x86 chips, Windows NT 3. Both systems were designed internally at Microsoft. Only two of the Windows NT 4. All of the other ports done by third parties Motorola, Intergraph, etc.
Microsoft demonstrated a preliminary version of Windows version 6. According to Microsoft, it is a common misconception that the Xbox and Xbox use a modified Windows kernel. In reality, the Xbox operating system was built from scratch but implements a subset of Windows APIs. Windows 11 is the first non-server version of Windows NT to not support bit platforms. The minimum hardware specification required to run each release of the professional workstation version of Windows NT has been fairly slow-moving until the 6.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Microsoft computer operating system family. This article is about the family of operating system versions by Microsoft. For the version released in , see Windows NT 4.
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